Articles Related to Geoduck Farming



The following articles and links are compiled by Protect-Zangle-Cove.

MOST IMPORTANT STUDIES


Document listing and summarizing Worldwide studies related to impacts of shellfish aquaculture. This list is a partial list.

Ecosystem Level Effects of Marine Bivalave Aquaculture From Abstract: "Potential mechanisms for ecosystem-level effects include the utilization of particulate food resources by cultured bivalves and associated fauna, the subsequent release of unutilized materials in dissolved (urine) and particulate (feces and pseudofeces) form, and the removal of minerals from the system in the bivalve harvest."

Effects of physical, chemical and rheological characteristics of mud on bioenergetics and habitat selection of the common sole Solea solea (Linnaeus, 1758) Christine Courturier, Univ of LaRochelle, France. 2006. "During periods of intense filtration, shellfish culture in Marennes-Oleron Bay was calculated to generate up to 6 tons (dry weight) of biodeposit per hectare and per day."

A REVIEW OF THE ECOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS OF MARICULTURE AND INTERTIDAL HARVESTING IN IRELAND M. L. Heffernan, IRISH WILDLIFE MANUALS No. 7, Series Editor: F. Marnell.

Scale-dependent and indirect effects of filter feeders on eelgrass: Understanding complex ecological interactions to improve environmental impacts of aquaculture Jennifer Ruesink, Sally Hacker, UW. 3/31/05

Report of the Working Group on Marine Shellfish Culture (WGMASC) May 13-15, 2004 Portland Maine Eight people representing six countries attended the 2004 meeting of WGMASC (See detailed List of participants in Annex 1). Other members, who were unable to attend, sent apologies (S. Gollatsch and R. Wenne). Several countries among largest shellfish producers were not represented yet. WGMASC expressed concerns about this, and an effort to promote membership will be made at the next ICES Annual Science Conference in Vigo (Spain).

Accelerated sulfur cycle in coastal marine sediment beneath areas of intensive shellfish aquaculture. Hiroki Asami, Masato Aida, and Kazuya Watanabe*, June 200.

An overview of factors affecting the Carrying Capacity of Coastal Embayments of Mussel Culture Graeme J. Inglis, Barbara J. Hayden, Alex H. Ross, New Zealand Ministry of the Environment, August 2000.

Pacific Oysters in the European Wadden Sea: An irreversible impact in a highly protected ecosystem , Stefan Nehring, November 17, 2003.

Impacts of mussel (mytilus galloprovincialis) farming on oxygen consumption and nutrient recyling in a eutrophic coastal lagoon. Daniele Nizzoli,*, David T. Welsh, Marco Bartoli & Pierluigi Viaroli, 2005.

Effects of mussel (Perna canaliculus) biodeposit decomposition on benthic respiration and nutrient fluxes . Hilke Giles, 2006.

Contrasting the community structure and select geochemical characteristics of three intertidal regions in relation to shellfish farming. L.I. BENDELL-YOUNG* Department of Biological Sciences, Simon Fraser University, March 3, 2006.

Potential impacts of mechanical cockle harvesting on shorebirds in Golden and Tasman Bays, New Zeland Frances Schmechel, Department of Conservation, Wellington, New Zealand, November 2001.

Sustainable Shellfish , Heather Deal, M.Sc., David Suzuki Foundation, British Columbia

Need for restricting bivalve culture in the southern basin of the Lagoon of Venice Iu. I . Sorokin, O. Giovanardi;, F. Pranovi & P. Iu. Sorokin 1999.

Impacts of intensive mariculture on coastal ecosystem and environmentin China and suggested sustainable management measures Qisheng Tang, Jianguang Fang.

The potential impacts of the commercial geoduck hydraulic harvest method on organisms in the sediment and at the water sediment interface in Puget Sound. Georgina Willner, June 2006. Thesis for Master's Degree, Evergreen State College

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Taylor Shellfish Permit Application 8/10/06


The permit application by Taylor Shellfish on behalf of Thurston County Geoduck Growers was submitted on August 10, 2006 for a "programmatic" permit for all tidelands of Thurston County for shellfish farming. The permit was sent back to Taylor Shellfish on September 7, 2006 as incomplete. It did not include any parcel numbers, among other things.
As Of March 6, 2007, the permit application has expired and based on the Attorney General opionion of January 4, 2007, the County determined that permits were not required. They failed to inform citizen groups of this decision.

The Thurston County Shoreline Master Program (See Page 39 for section on Aquacultural Activities) describes policies and regulations for aquacultural activities. There is currently no permitting process. For more information or comments contact Michael Kain, Planning Manager 2617-A 12th Court SW, Olympia, WA 98502, 260-786-5471.

Letter from Michael Kain to Pacific Coast Shellfish Growers Association regarding conditions for lifting stop work orders on geoduck farms in Zangle Cove and inviting the shellfish growers to apply for a County-wide geoduck aquaculture district.

The following documents were all submitted as part of the application:

1. Cover letter to the application from Diane Cooper, Taylor Shellfish, representing the Thurston County Geoduck Growers, dated 8/9/06

2. Environmental Checklist

3. Joint Aquatic Resources Permit Application Form 8/10/06

4. Geoduck Culture in Puget Sound: Environmental Interactions Prepared by the Pacific Shellfish Institute, Olympia, WA, 8/7/06

5. Guidance for Protection and Restoration of Nearshore Ecosystems in Puget Sound Summary document written by the Puget Sound Nearshore Partnership.

6. Geoduck Farming Fact Sheet

7. Programmatic Biological Evaluation of Potential Impacts of Intertidal Geoduck Culture Facilities to Endangered Species and Essential Fish Habitat Prepared for Taylor Shellfish, Seattle Shellfish and Chelsea Farms by Entrix, Inc, Olympia, WA 10/27/04

8. Washington Geoduck Growers Environmental Codes of Practice States this is a living document and will continue to evolve as new approaches, priorities and objectives are identified.

9. Comprehensive Literature Review and Synopsis of Issues Relating To Geoduck Ecology and Aquaculture production Prepared for Washington State Department of Natural Resources by School of Aquatic and Fishery Sciences, UW; Department of Biology, UW; Pacific Shellfish Institute; Baywater, Inc.

10. A 1985 map showing the Puget Sound waters in Thurston County. This map shows existing aquaculture areas as of 1985 with property owner designations (mainly shellfish companies), State oyster reserves, subtidal geoduck tracts and unused Bush Act lands. There are vague indications of currently existing intertidal geoduck farms, marked with "x's", but without parcel numbers and for the most part, without the name of the individual grower. It is unclear what this map is intending to represent in relation to the permit application.

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COURT OPINIONS/LEGAL

Shoreline Substantial Development Permit Taylor Shellfish/Meyer and Taylor Shellfish/Stratford Pierce County Hearings Examiner, 11/30/06

WA Shellfish Court Opinion, Pierce County 3/28/2006

CLAM SHACKS v. SKAGIT COUNTY 11/13/87

San Juan County v. DOE with intervenors Marine Environmental Consortium v. San Juan Island Aquaculture Association 4/7/1989

WA ST Geoduck Harvest Assoc., Appellant v. Dept. of Natural Resources, et al, Respondents Filed 11/30/2004 in Court of Appeals. Original opinion from Thurston County Superior court 9/25/2003.

CITY OF BAINBRIDGE ISLAND, a Washington municipal corporation, Respondent, v. ANNETTE BRENNAN, et al, Appellants. 2005 case regarding public trust doctrine and the rights of non-property owners to access Puget Sound waters from a public access road across privately owned tidelands.

Report of Hearing Examiner that the application for a Shoreline Substantial Development Permit lacks sufficient evidence to justify the granting of the permit at this time. Kitsap County 2002. This is related to subtidal harvesting of native geoduck, but has arguments worth looking at.

Association to Protect Hammersley, Eld, and Totten Inlets v. Taylor Resources, Inc., 299 F.3d 1007 (9th Cir. 2002). PLEASE NOTE: IN THIS APPEAL, TAYLOR SHELLFISH WAS SUPPORTED BY PEOPLE FOR PUGET SOUND, the large well known environmental group whose mission is to restore and protect Puget Sound.

Mussel Byproducts from Harvesting Rafts are Not Pollutants Association to Protect Hammersley, Eld, and Totten Inlets v. Taylor Resources, Inc., 299 F.3d 1007 (9th Cir. 2002).

Letter from APHETI to Roger Giebelhaus regarding the Taylor Resources North Totten Inlet Mussel Culture SEPA No.: SEPA961372 CASE No.: SSDP961372 299 F.3d 1007 (9th Cir. 2002). Letter outlines objections to the EIS proposal by Thurston County due to the lack of specificity, incomplete scope, insufficient focus, lack of rigor, strong potential bias, assumption of permitted use, lack of seriousness, lack of public input as to EIS process, confusing scope.

Thurston County Hearing Examiner Decision to require EIS for mussel rafts June 18, 1999. To date this EIS has not been completed.

Analysis of Proposed Initiative 933 & its Consequences for Washington Washington Chapter of the American Planning Association.

Wa State Geoduck Harvest Association vs. DNR

Fishy BusinessóRegulating AquacultureOperations in the United States 2003

Memorandum re: Geoduck Management in Washington Dec 12, 2003, House of Representatives

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SHORELINE MANAGEMENT ACT

WA State Shoreline Management Act Adopted in 1972.

Introduction to Shoreline Management Act

RCW'S Adopted in 1971.

Thurston County Shoreline Regulations and Permits Instruction Sheet

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LETTERS

Letter from Citizens for a Healthy Bay to Pierce County Executive June 19,2006

Letter from Fran McNair, DNR Aquatic Lands Steward August 11,2006

Letter from Thurston County to Pacific Coast Shellfish Growers Association regarding permitting requirements for geoduck farms July 20,2006

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GROUPS

Geoduck Farming in Zangle Cove. PDF Document. 6/19/06 SaveOurShoreline.net Group in Key Center on the Key Peninsula.

NoGeoduckFarm.com Group on Mayo Cove, Pierce County.

Eco-Pros Environmental Education on the Web.

Citizens for a Healthy Bay Based in Tacoma.

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NEGATIVE IMPACTS

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT

What are Red Tides? Marine Institute of Memorial University of New Foundland Website. Are there red tides in Brazil? Brazilian Mariculture Linkage Program.

Nearshore Habitat in Thurston County Thurston County Regional Planning Council 2001 was awarded a Salmon Recovery Funding Board (SRFB)

DNR Maury Island Environmental Aquatic Reserve Final Management Plan October 29, 2004. Read pages 33-35 on commercial geoduck harvest.

Taxonomy Species Clam, Pacific Geoduck. 8/26/96

Effects of Shoreline Modification on a Northern Puget Sound Beach: Microclimate and Embryo Mortality in Surf Smelt (Hypomesus pretiosus). CASIMIR A. RICE 2/2006

Comprehensive Literature Review and Synopsis and issues related to Geoduck Ecology and Aquaculture Production. Prepared for DNR by UW School of Aquatic and Fishery Sciences, UW Dept of Biology, Pacific Shellfish Institute, Baywater, Inc. February 6, 2004/

Hood Canal Low Dissolved Oxygen Preliminary Assessment and Corrective Action Plan Puget Sound Action Team. May 6, 2004

Puget Sound Partnership Meeting Recap May 31-June 1, 2006 Retreat.

Invasive tunicate species attaches to Taylor Shellfish mussel rafts Taylor Gallagher Cove, Totten Inlet, WA, November 2004

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DNR AND STATE OWNED SUBTIDAL GEODUCK HARVESTS

Please note that most geoduck product is shipped live to the Asian market as a luxury food item. Read the 2004 economic study on the world wide geoduck market commission by the Washington state Department of Natural Resources. DNR is in the process of leasing up to 250 acres of state owned public tidelands to commercial geoduck interests over a 10 year period. Go to the DNR geoduck aquaculture website to view maps of public tidelands designated in 2006 and 2007 for DNR leases. DNR Aquatic Resources Program Endangered Species Act Compliance Project Covered Species Technical Paper June 2005 DNR Geoduck Aquaculture Program

DNR Geoduck Program Implementation Phase2006. Includes survey feedback form which can sent mail to DNR.

DNR Geoduck Program Fact Sheet

HOUSE BILL REPORT SHB 3102 As Passed House: February 14, 2006 Title: An act relating to geoduck harvesting. Brief Description: Providing guidelines for the issuance and renewal of a geoduck diver license and requiring harvesters to help reseed state commercial beds.

DNR Rules for Geoduck Harvesting on State Lands WAC 220-52-019

Washington's Wildstock Geoduck Fishery

Geoduck Aquaculture Feasibility Pilot Project 2005

Statistics on Subtidal Track: Dover Point Last surveyed 1989.

DFW Map of Subtidal Tracts in South Puget Sound

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DNR AND STATE OWNED INTERTIDAL LEASES FOR GEODUCK FARMING



Geoduck Aquculture Program Fact Sheet August 2006. Speaks about subtidal aquaculture as well as current lease plans for intertidal geoduck aquaculture.

MAPS OF LEASE AREAS Request for Offers to Lease State-Owned Aquatic Lands for Geoduck Aquaculture

DNR GEODUCK AQUACULTURE REQUEST FOR OFFERS GA06-001 FOR LEASED STATE OWNED TIDELAND FARMING OF GOEDUCKS Points of Clarification from June 30, 2006 Informational Workshop

Geographical Information Systems Penobscot Bay Applications of Remote Sensing and Geographical Information Systems for Marine Resources Management in Penobscot Bay, Maine. References Washington State DNR practices.

The Task Before Us Protecting and Restoring Pacific Northwest Estuaries.

Puget Sound Research 2001 The Puget Sound/Georgia Basin Ecosystem: Status, stressors and the road to recovery

LINKING NEARSHORE PROCESSES WITH INTERTIDAL DIVERSITY IN PUGET SOUND

GUIDANCE FOR PROTECTION AND RESTORATION OF THE NEARSHORE ECOSYSTEMS OF PUGET SOUND.

Toxicity of Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP) in the Geoduck Clam. Kelly M. Curtis University of Washington, School of Fisheries

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OTHER STATES AND BC

Rules for permits for geoduck harvest in Alaska

Geoduck Aquaculture Estimated Costs and Returns for Sub-tidal Culture in B.C. June 2005

Setting Priorities for British Columbia Shellfish Aquaculture Research and Development: Process, Outcomes and Evaluation, February 2006

British Columbia Shellfish Growers Association Culture of Geoduck.

Underwater Harvester's Association Canada.

Fisheries and Aquaculture British Columbia.

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MARINE PLANTS, ANIMALS AND BIRDS

Eelgrass in Puget SoundóA New Study of Flow, Sediment Transport, and Zostera marina, Sept 2004.

An Underwater Ark. 9/2003. Article about eelgrass from Audubon.

Influences of Geoduck Aquaculture on Eelgrass. Univ of Wash 2005

Puget Sound's Nearshore Habitat December 2002

Life Under the Mud Genny Anderson 2003

Washington Department of Fish & Wildlife's Priority Habitat and Species Management Recommendations Volume IV: Birds Bald Eagle Haliaeetus leucocephalus

Washington Department of Fish & Wildlife Species of Concern: Bald Eagle

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SHELLFISH AND SHELLFISH HARVESTING

Bivalve Basics 7/2003. Shellfish Ecology

Taylor Shellfish Farms

NISQUALLY REACH SHELLFISH PROTECTION DISTRICT STAKEHOLDER GROUP Report & Recommendations July 10, 2003.

Invasive tunicate species attaches to Taylor Shellfish mussel rafts Taylor Gallagher Cove, Totten Inlet, WA, November 2004

Army Corps of Engineering Shellfish Culture Permitting Issue December 2005.

TASK FORCE TO DEVELOP NATIONAL STANDARDS FOR OCEAN AQUACULTURE ANNOUNCED BY THE PEW CHARITABLE TRUSTS AND WOODS HOLE OCEANOGRAPHIC INSTITUTION June 24, 2005.

Year two for Henderson Community Shellfish Farm oyster seeding 2004.

List of Commercial Shellfish Companies in Washington State Licensed as of January 27, 2006

Harvest Management Plan for Subtidal Geoduck Clam in Strait of Juan de Fuca 2003-2004

Harvesting Methuselah's Clams. Is the Geoduck Fishery Sustainable or Just Apparently So? Comparison of geoduck harvesting in British Columbia and Washington State. Extensive information about recruitment. Says that recruitment in South Puget Sound is approximately 85 years. School of Fisheries, UW.

Dredging Activities: Marine Issues Prepared by Barbara Nightingale and Charles Simenstad University of Washington Wetland Ecosystem Team School of Aquatic and Fishery Sciences for the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, July 13, 2001.

ECSGA Shellfish Notes Ed Rhodes, ECSGA Executive Director, April 7 2004. Read section: Would you be in business today if you had to file an Environmental Impact Statement before you could get a permit to grow shellfish?

Member Alert: Congress called on to assist in Corps permit issue. Pacific Coast Shellfish Growers Association.

Small Scale Clam Farming for Pleasure and Profit in Washington September 2005

Farming of Geoduck Clams in Washington Becomes A Reality Schools of Aquatic and Fishery Science, Univ Wash. Winter 2005, page 18.

Will the introduced mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis out compete the native mussel M. trossulus in Puget Sound? A study of relative survival and growth rates among different habitats The results of this experimental study showed that Mg had higher survival and growth than Mt in all habitats except the high intertidal, suggesting that Mg has the potential to outcompete Mt in the low intertidal and low subtidal zones in areas of high salinity. Further research is required to determine whether Mg or hybrids between Mg and Mt will have a significant influence on populations of the native mussel Mt in Puget Sound.

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NEWSPAPER AND NEWSLETTER ARTICLES

Geoduck opposition groups, county seek solutions. Key Peninsula News, October 6, 2006, Chris Fitzgerald

Asian appetite for state's farm-raised geoducks raises environmental questions. Puget Sound Business Journal, September 22, 2006.

Geoduck growers' hopes stuck in permit process. Neighbors contend farms interfere with recreation and environment. The Olympian, John Dodge, September 11, 2006

Trapped eagle stokes sides of geoduck fight. Neighbors contend farms interfere with recreation and environment. The Olympian, Diane Huber, August 14, 2006

Geoduck farms might harm shorelines Big clams, bigger questions. Tacoma News Tribune, Stan Cummings 7/17/06

Booming Geoduck Farms Move Closer to Shore.. The Olympian, John Dodge, 6/19/06

Local Geoduck Farming May Pose Environmental Threat. Citizens for Healthy Bay, June 2006.

Peninsula Gateway-- Residents fight geoduck application. Callie White 5/18/06

Tacoma News Tribune Article - Opposition to Purdy Geoduck Farm Brent Champaco. 5/17/06

Legislature comes to rescue of geoduck, clam growers The Olympian. Reporter John Dodge 3/18/02

Gateway Newspaper Article About SOS Opposition to Geoduck Farming Reporter Michael Colello.

Seattle PI-- Cashing in on Geoducks. Colin McDonald 8/21/04

The Geoduck Chronicles March 21, 1999 How An Obscure Bivalve Became The Object Of International Desire

Bacteria thriving in Hood Canall. Seattle PI, September 22, 2006.

Seattle Weekly - Viagra on the Half Shell. Article dated July 12, 2000.

The Sun Link: Geoducks rule - all over Asia. Christopher Dunagan

The Sun Link: Geoduck Debate about to Reignite. Christopher Dunagan 8/30/04

The Sun Link: To help Hood Canal, lawmaker wants to prevent taking geoducks. Bill Buchanan 1/23/04

Geoduck of Hood Canal and Case Inlet: Fun to dig, delicious to eat, and a goldmine on your beach! Tim Wing 2004

Puget Sound must be saved. Olympian, May 7, 2006

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MISCELLANEOUS ARTICLES

Effects of Concentrated Geoduck Farming. Article written by Mal Blair of McCormick Creek (Henderson Bay) about the potential effects of geoduck farming. Presented at the meeting with SaveOurShoreline.net, Henderson Bay Shoreline Association and Protect Our Shoreline in Gig Harbor on May 15, 2006. Pat Lance, State Representative attending.

Clallam County Concern & Priorities. Members of Clallam County's MRC are working to restore nearshore, intertidal and estuarine habitats, improve shellfish harvest areas, support salmon and bottomfish recovery and identify and urge establishment of marine protected areas. These actions complement those of existing local and state authorities to address the many serious threats to the Northwest Straits, its natural resources and human residents.

Background and Goals of the Clallam County Marine Resources Committee.

SCEA Newsletter January 2005. Skagit Conservation Education Alliance Newsletter that talks about partnership with Taylor Shellfish in creating a community 'Adopt a Duck' (geoduck) program. For $5 you can buy a PVC pipe for the baby geoduck!

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